Glossary Terms


Abandoned: aban·doned
Pronunciation: &-'ban-d&nd
Function: adjective
1 : wholly free from restraint
2 : given up

Abundant: abun·dant
Pronunciation: -d&nt
Function: adjective
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French, from Latin abundant-, abundans, present participle of abundare to abound
1 a : marked by great plenty (as of resources) b : amply supplied

Administer: ad·min·is·ter
Pronunciation: &d-'mi-n&-st&r
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -is·tered; ad·min·is·ter·ing /-st(&-)ri[ng]/
Etymology: Middle English administren, from Middle French administrer, from Latin administrare, from ad- + ministrare to serve, from minister servant -- more at MINISTER
transitive senses
1 : to manage or supervise the execution, use, or conduct of
2 a : to mete out : DISPENSE
3: to perform the office of administrator
4: to furnish a benefit : MINISTER
5: to manage affairs

Admit: ad·mit
Pronunciation: &d-'mit, ad-
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): ad·mit·ted; ad·mit·ting
Etymology: Middle English admitten, from Latin admittere, from ad- + mittere to send
transitive senses
1 : to allow entry (as to a place, fellowship, or privilege)
intransitive senses
2 : to give entrance or access
synonym see ACKNOWLEDGE

Accuse: ac·cuse
Pronunciation: &-'kyüz
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): ac·cused; ac·cus·ing
Etymology: Middle English, from Old French acuser, from Latin accusare to call to account, from ad- + causa lawsuit
transitive senses
1 : to charge with a fault or offense : BLAME

Appeal: appeal
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle English appelen to accuse, appeal, from Middle French apeler, from Latin appellare, from appellere to drive to, from ad- + pellere to drive -- more at FELT
transitive senses
1 : to charge with a crime : ACCUSE
2 : to take proceedings to have (a lower court's decision) reviewed in a higher court
intransitive senses
3 : to take a lower court's decision to a higher court for review
4 : to call upon another for corroboration, vindication, or decision
5 : to make an earnest request
6 : to arouse a sympathetic response

Appointed: &-'point-ed
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French apointier to arrange, from a- (from Latin ad-) + point point
transitive senses
1 a : to fix or set officially b : to name officially

Arid: ar·id
Pronunciation: 'ar-&d
Function: adjective
Etymology: French or Latin; French aride, from Latin aridus, from arEre to be dry; akin to Sanskrit Asa ash, Old English asce
1 : excessively dry; specifically : having insufficient rainfall to support agriculture
- arid·i·ty /&-'ri-d&-tE, a-/ noun
- ar·id·ness /'ar-&d-n&s/ noun

Ascend: as·cend
Pronunciation: &-'send
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle English, from Latin ascendere, from ad- + scandere to climb -- more at SCAN
intransitive senses
1 a : to move upward b : to slope upward

Attend: at·tend
Pronunciation: &-'tend
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle English, from Old French atendre, from Latin attendere, literally, to stretch to, from ad- + tendere to stretch -- more at THIN
transitive senses
1: to be present at : go to
intransitive senses 2 : to apply oneself
3: to apply the mind or pay attention : HEED
4a : to be ready for service b : to be present
5 : to direct one's attention : SEE
- at·tend·er noun

Board: 
Pronunciation: \ˈbȯrd\
1 : to provide with regular meals and often also lodging usually for compensation

Boom: boom
Pronunciation: 'büm
Function: verb
Etymology: imitative
intransitive senses
1 a : to increase in importance or esteem b : to experience a sudden rapid growth and expansion usually with an increase in prices c : to develop rapidly in population and importance

Budget: bud·get
Pronunciation: 'b&-j&t
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English bowgette, from Middle French bougette, diminutive of bouge leather bag, from Latin bulga, of Celtic origin; akin to Middle Irish bolg bag; akin to Old English belg bag -- more at BELLY
1 a : a statement of the financial position of an administration for a definite period of time based on estimates of expenditures during the period and proposals for financing them b : a plan for the coordination of resources and expenditures c : the amount of money that is available for, required for, or assigned to a particular purpose

Caboose: ca·boose
Pronunciation: k&-'büs
Function: noun
Etymology: probably from Dutch kabuis, from Middle Low German kabuse
1 : a ship's galley
2 : a freight-train car attached usually to the rear mainly for the use of the train crew
3 : one that follows or brings up the rear

Cavalry: cav·al·ry
Pronunciation: 'ka-v&l-rE, ÷'kal-v&-rE
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural -ries
Etymology: Italian cavalleria cavalry, chivalry, from cavaliere
1 a : an army component mounted on horseback

Chairman: chair·man
Pronunciation: -m&n
Function: noun
1 a : the presiding officer of a meeting or an organization or committee b : the administrative officer of a department of instruction

Charter: char·ter
Pronunciation: 'chär-t&r
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English chartre, from Old French, from Medieval Latin chartula, from Latin, diminutive of charta
1 : a written instrument or contract (as a deed) executed in due form
2 a : a grant or guarantee of rights, franchises, or privileges from the sovereign power of a state or country b : a written instrument that creates and defines the franchises of a city, educational institution, or corporation c : CONSTITUTION
3 : a written instrument from the authorities of a society creating a lodge or branch

Christening: chris·ten ing
Pronunciation: 'kri-s&n
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Form(s): chris·tened; chris·ten·ing /'kris-ni[ng], 'kri-s&n-i[ng]/
Etymology: Middle English cristnen, from Old English cristnian, from cristen Christian, from Latin christianus
1 a : BAPTIZE b : to name at baptism
2 : to name or dedicate (as a ship) by a ceremony suggestive of baptism
3 : NAME
4 : to use for the first time

Civilization: civ·i·li·za·tion
Pronunciation: "si-v&-l&-'zA-sh&n
Function: noun
1 a : a relatively high level of cultural and technological development; specifically : the stage of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained b : the culture characteristic of a particular time or place
2 : the process of becoming civilized
3 a : refinement of thought, manners, or taste b : a situation of urban comfort
- civ·i·li·za·tion·al /-shn&l, -sh&-n&l/ adjective

Claim: claim
1 : a demand for something due or believed to be due
2 a : a right to something; specifically : a title to a debt, privilege, or other thing in the possession of another b : an assertion open to challenge
3 : something that is claimed; especially : a tract of land staked out

Competitor: com·pet·i·tor
Pronunciation: k&m-'pe-t&-t&r
Function: noun
: one that competes : as a : RIVAL b : one selling or buying goods or services in the same market as another

Congressman: con·gress·man
Pronunciation: 'kä[ng]-(g)r&s-m&n
Function: noun
: a member of a congress; especially : a member of the U.S. House of Representatives

Consul: con·sul
Pronunciation: 'kän(t)-s&l
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Latin; perhaps akin to Latin consulere to consult
1 : an official appointed by a government to reside in a foreign country to represent the commercial interests of citizens of the appointing country
- con·sul·ar /-s(&-)l&r/ adjective
- con·sul·ship /-s&l-"ship/ noun

Cooper: coo·per
Pronunciation: 'kü-p&r, 'ku-
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English couper, cowper, from Middle Dutch cuper (from cupe cask) or Middle Low German kuper, from kupe cask; Middle Dutch cupe & Middle Low German kupe, from Latin cupa; akin to Greek kypellon cup -- more at HIVE
: one that makes or repairs wooden casks or tubs

Company Town: company town
Function: noun
: a community that is dependent on one firm for all or most of the necessary services or functions of town life (as employment, housing, and stores)

Controversy: con·tro·ver·sy
Pronunciation: 'kän-tr&-"v&r-sE, British also k&n-'trä-v&r-sE
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural -sies
Etymology: Middle English controversie, from Latin controversia, from controversus disputable, literally, turned against, from contro- (akin to contra-) + versus, past participle of vertere to turn -- more at WORTH
1 : a discussion marked especially by the expression of opposing views

Custodial: cus·to·di·al
Pronunciation: \ˌkəs-ˈtō-dē-əl\
Function: adjective
1 : relating to, providing, or being protective care or services for basic needs

Custom: cus·tom
Pronunciation: 'k&s-t&m
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English custume, from Old French, from Latin consuetudin-, consuetudo, from consuescere to accustom, from com- + suescere to accustom; akin to suus one's own
1 a : a usage or practice common to many or to a particular place or class or habitual with an individual b : long-established practice considered as unwritten law c : repeated practice d : the whole body of usages, practices, or conventions that regulate social life

Debate: debate
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): de·bat·ed; de·bat·ing
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French debatre, from Old French, from de- + batre to beat, from Latin battuere
intransitive senses
1 obsolete : FIGHT, CONTEND
2 a : to contend in words b : to discuss a question by considering opposed arguments
3 : to participate in a debate
transitive senses
4 a : to argue about b : to engage (an opponent) in debate
5 : to turn over in one's mind
synonym see DISCUSS
- de·bate·ment /-'bAt-m&nt/ noun
- de·bat·er noun

Depot: de·pot
Pronunciation: 1 and 2 are 'de-(")pO also 'dE-, 3 is 'dE- sometimes 'de-
Function: noun
Etymology: French dépôt, from Middle French depost, from Medieval Latin depositum, from Latin, neuter of depositus
1 : a building for railroad or bus passengers or freight

Descent: de·scent
Pronunciation: di-'sent
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French descente, from Old French descendre
1 a : derivation from an ancestor : BIRTH, LINEAGE b : transmission or devolution of an estate by inheritance usually in the descending line c : the fact or process of originating from an ancestral stock

Desert: de·sert
Pronunciation: di-'z&rt
Function: verb
Etymology: French déserter, from Late Latin desertare, frequentative of Latin deserere
transitive senses
1 : to withdraw from or leave usually without intent to return
2 a : to leave in the lurch b : to abandon (military service) without leave

Deter: de·ter
Pronunciation: di-'t&r, dE-
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Form(s): de·terred; de·ter·ring
Etymology: Latin deterrEre, from de- + terrEre to frighten
1 : to turn aside, discourage, or prevent from acting
2 : INHIBIT
- de·ter·ment /-'t&r-m&nt/ noun
- de·ter·ra·bil·i·ty /-"t&r-&-'bi-l&-tE/ noun
- de·ter·ra·ble /-'t&r-&-b&l/ adjective

Dialect: di·a·lect
Pronunciation: 'dI-&-"lekt
Function: noun
Usage: often attributive
Etymology: Middle French dialecte, from Latin dialectus, from Greek dialektos conversation, dialect, from dialegesthai to converse -- more at DIALOGUE
1 a : a regional variety of language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language

Discourage: dis·cour·age
Pronunciation: dis-'k&r-ij, -'k&-rij
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Form(s): -aged; -ag·ing
Etymology: Middle English discoragen, from Middle French descorager, from Old French descoragier, from des- dis- + corage courage
1 : to deprive of courage or confidence : DISHEARTEN
2 a : to hinder by disfavoring b : to attempt to dissuade
- dis·cour·age·able /-j&-b&l/ adjective
- dis·cour·ag·er noun
- dis·cour·ag·ing·ly /-ji[ng]-lE/ adverb

Disembark: dis·em·bark
Pronunciation: "di-s&m-'bärk
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle French desembarquer, from des- dis- + embarquer to embark
transitive senses : to remove to shore from a ship
intransitive senses
1 : to go ashore out of a ship
2 : to get out of a vehicle or craft
- dis·em·bar·ka·tion /(")di-"sem-"bär-'kA-sh&n, -b&r-/ noun

Distinction: dis·tinc·tion
Pronunciation: di-'sti[ng](k)-sh&n
Function: noun
1 a archaic : DIVISION b : CLASS 4
2 : the distinguishing of a difference ; also : the difference distinguished
3 : something that distinguishes
4 : the quality or state of being distinguishable
5 a : the quality or state of being distinguished or worthy b : special honor or recognition c : an accomplishment that sets one apart

Distraught: dis·traught
Pronunciation: dis-'trot
Function: adjective
Etymology: Middle English, modification of Latin distractus
1 : agitated with doubt or mental conflict
- dis·traught·ly adverb

Divert: di·vert
Pronunciation: d&-'v&rt, dI-
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French & Latin; Middle French divertir, from Latin divertere to turn in opposite directions, from dis- + vertere to turn -- more at WORTH
intransitive senses : to turn aside : DEVIATE
transitive senses
1 a : to turn from one course or use to another

Dysentery: dys·en·tery
Pronunciation: 'di-s&n-"ter-E
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural -ter·ies
Etymology: Middle English dissenterie, from Latin dysenteria, from Greek, from dys- + enteron intestine -- more at INTER-
1 : a disease characterized by severe diarrhea with passage of mucus and blood and usually caused by infection

Elevation: el·e·va·tion
Pronunciation: "e-l&-'vA-sh&n
Function: noun
1 : the height to which something is elevated : as a : the angular distance of something (as a celestial object) above the horizon b : the degree to which a gun is aimed above the horizon c : the height above the level of the sea : ALTITUDE

Emigrant: emigrant
Function: adjective
1 : departing or having departed from a country to settle elsewhere

Encampment: en·camp·ment
Pronunciation: -m&nt
Function: noun
1 a : the place where a group (as a body of troops) is encamped b : the individuals that make up an encampment
2 : the act of encamping : the state of being encamped

Erect: erect
Function: transitive verb
1 a (1) : to put up by the fitting together of materials or parts : BUILD

Establish: es·tab·lish
Pronunciation: is-'ta-blish
Function: transitive verb
Etymology: Middle English establissen, from Middle French establiss-, stem of establir, from Latin stabilire, from stabilis stable
1 a : to bring into existence : FOUND b : BRING ABOUT, EFFECT
2 a : to put on a firm basis : SET UP b : to put into a favorable position c : to gain full recognition or acceptance of
- es·tab·lish·able /-sh&-b&l/ adjective
- es·tab·lish·er /-sh&r/ noun

Estate: es·tate
Pronunciation: is-'tAt
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English estat, from Old French -- more at STATE
1 : POSSESSIONS, PROPERTY; especially : a person's property in land and tenements
2 : the assets and liabilities left by a person at death

Exclusive: ex·clu·sive
Pronunciation: iks-'klü-siv, -ziv
Function: adjective
1 a : excluding or having power to exclude b : limiting or limited to possession, control, or use by a single individual or group
2 a : excluding others from participation b : snobbishly aloof
3 a : accepting or soliciting only a socially restricted patronage (as of the upper class) b : STYLISH, FASHIONABLE c : restricted in distribution, use, or appeal because of expense

Find: find
Function: noun
1 : something found: as a : a valuable discovery

Focal Point: fo-cal point
Pronunciation: 'fO-k&l 'point
Function: adjective/noun
1 : a center of activity, attraction, or attention b : a point of concentration
2: directed attention

Freight: freight
Pronunciation: 'frAt
Function: noun
Usage: often attributive
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle Dutch or Middle Low German vracht, vrecht
1 a : the compensation paid for the transportation of goods b : COST
2 a : goods to be shipped : CARGO b : LOAD, BURDEN c : MEANING 3, SIGNIFICANCE
3 a : the ordinary transportation of goods by a common carrier and distinguished from express b : a train designed or used for such transportation

Generous: gen·er·ous
Pronunciation: 'jen-r&s, 'je-n&-
Function: adjective
Etymology: Middle French or Latin; Middle French genereus, from Latin generosus, from gener-, genus
1 archaic : HIGHBORN
2 a : characterized by a noble or forbearing spirit : MAGNANIMOUS, KINDLY b : liberal in giving : OPENHANDED c : marked by abundance or ample proportions : COPIOUS
synonym see LIBERAL
- gen·er·ous·ly adverb
- gen·er·ous·ness noun

Govern: gov·ern
Pronunciation: 'g&-v&rn
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle English, from Old French governer, from Latin gubernare to steer, govern, from Greek kybernan
transitive senses
1 a : to exercise continuous sovereign authority over; especially : to control and direct the making and administration of policy in
2 a : to control, direct, or strongly influence the actions and conduct of b : to exert a determining or guiding influence in or over
3 : to prevail or have decisive influence : CONTROL
4 : to exercise authority

Government: gov·ern·ment
Pronunciation: 'g&-v&r(n)-m&nt, -v&-m&nt; 'g&-b&m-&nt, -v&m-
Function: noun
Usage: often attributive
1 : the act or process of governing; specifically : authoritative direction or control
2 a : the office, authority, or function of governing
3 : the continuous exercise of authority over and the performance of functions for a political unit : RULE
5 a : the organization, machinery, or agency through which a political unit exercises authority and performs functions and which is usually classified according to the distribution of power within it b : the complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out
6 : the body of persons that constitutes the governing authority of a political unit or organization: as a : the officials comprising the governing body of a political unit and constituting the organization as an active agency

Governor: gov·er·nor
Pronunciation: 'g&-v&n-&r also 'g&-v&r-n&r
Function: noun
1 : one that governs : as a : one that exercises authority especially over an area or group b : an official elected or appointed to act as ruler, chief executive, or nominal head of a political unit c : COMMANDING OFFICER d : the managing director and usually the principal officer of an institution or organization e : a member of a group that directs or controls an institution or society

Grant: grant
Pronunciation: 'grant
Function: transitive verb
Etymology: Middle English, from Old French creanter, graanter, from (assumed) Vulgar Latin credentare, from Latin credent-, credens, present participle of credere to believe -- more at CREED
1 : to bestow or transfer formally ; specifically : to give the possession or title of by a deed
- grant·able /'gran-t&-b&l/ adjective
- grant·er /-t&r/ noun
- grant·or /'gran-t&r, -"tor; gran-'tor/ noun

Grist Mill: grist·mill
Pronunciation: 'grist-"mil
Function: noun
: a mill for grinding grain

Grueling: gru·el·ing
Variant(s): or gru·el·ling /'grü-&-li[ng]/
Function: adjective
Etymology: from present participle of obsolete gruel (to exhaust)
: trying or taxing to the point of exhaustion

Hamper: ham·per
Pronunciation: 'ham-p&r
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Form(s): ham·pered; ham·per·ing /-p(&-)ri[ng]/
Etymology: Middle English
1 : to interfere with the operation of : DISRUPT
2 a : CURB, RESTRAIN b : to interfere with

Hewn: 'hyün
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): hewed; hewed or hewn /'hyün/; hew·ing
Etymology: Middle English, from Old English hEawan; akin to Old High German houwan to hew, Lithuanian kauti to forge, Latin cudere to beat
1 : to cut with blows of a heavy cutting instrument
2 : to fell by blows of an ax
3 : to give form or shape to with or as if with heavy cutting blows

Heyday: heyday
Function: noun
1 archaic : high spirits
2 : the period of one's greatest strength, vigor, or prosperity

Hobo: ho·bo
Pronunciation: 'hO-(")bO
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural hoboes also hobos
Etymology: origin unknown
1 : a migratory worker
2 : a homeless and usually penniless vagabond

Ill-fated: ill-fat·ed
Pronunciation: 'il-'fA-t&d
Function: adjective
1 : having or destined to a hapless fate : UNFORTUNATE

Incorporated: in-'kor-p&-"rAt-ed
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -rat·ed; -rat·ing
Etymology: Middle English, from Late Latin incorporatus, past participle of incorporare, from Latin in- + corpor-, corpus body -- more at MIDRIFF
transitive senses
1 a : to unite or work into something already existent so as to form an indistinguishable whole b : to blend or combine thoroughly
2 a : to form into a legal corporation b : to admit to membership in a corporate body

Industrialize: in·dus·tri·al·ize
Pronunciation: in-'d&s-trE-&-"lIz
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -ized; -iz·ing
transitive senses : to make industrial
intransitive senses : to become industrial

Industrious: in·dus·tri·ous
Pronunciation: in-'d&s-trE-&s
Function: adjective
1 obsolete : SKILLFUL, INGENIOUS
2 : persistently active : ZEALOUS
3 : constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied : DILIGENT
synonym see BUSY
- in·dus·tri·ous·ly adverb
- in·dus·tri·ous·ness noun

Inherit: in·her·it
Pronunciation: in-'her-&t
Function: verb
Etymology: Middle English enheriten to make one an heir, inherit, from Middle French enheriter to make one an heir, from Late Latin inhereditare, from Latin in- + hereditas inheritance -- more at HEREDITY
transitive senses
1 : to come into possession of or receive especially as a right or divine portion
2 a : to receive from an ancestor as a right or title descendible by law at the ancestor's death b : to receive as a devise or legacy
3 : to take or hold a possession or rights by inheritance
- in·her·i·tor /-&-t&r/ noun
- in·her·i·tress /-&-tr&s/ or in·her·i·trix /-&-(")triks/ noun

Intersection: in·ter·sec·tion
Pronunciation: "in-t&r-'sek-sh&n, esp in sense 2 'in-t&r-"
Function: noun
1 : the act or process of intersecting
2 : a place or area where two or more things (as streets) intersect

Investigate: in·ves·ti·gate
Pronunciation: in-'ves-t&-"gAt
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -gat·ed; -gat·ing
Etymology: Latin investigatus, past participle of investigare to track, investigate, from in- + vestigium footprint, track
transitive senses : to observe or study by close examination and systematic inquiry
intransitive senses : to make a systematic examination; especially : to conduct an official inquiry
- in·ves·ti·ga·tion /-"ves-t&-'gA-sh&n/ noun
- in·ves·ti·ga·tion·al /-shn&l, -sh&-n&l/ adjective
- in·ves·ti·ga·tive /-'ves-t&-"gA-tiv/ adjective
- in·ves·ti·ga·tor /-"gA-t&r/ noun
- in·ves·ti·ga·to·ry /-'ves-ti-g&-"tOr-E, -"tor-/ adjective

Irrigate: ir·ri·gate
Pronunciation: 'ir-&-"gAt
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -gat·ed; -gat·ing
Etymology: Latin irrigatus, past participle of irrigare, from in- + rigare to water; perhaps akin to Old High German regan rain -- more at RAIN
transitive senses
1 : WET, MOISTEN: as a : to supply (as land) with water by artificial means
2 : to refresh as if by watering
intransitive senses : to practice irrigation
- ir·ri·ga·tion /"ir-&-'gA-sh&n/ noun
- ir·ri·ga·tor /'ir-&-"gA-t&r/ noun

Issue: is·sue
Pronunciation: 'i-(")shü, chiefly Southern 'i-sh&, chiefly British 'is-(")yü
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, exit, proceeds, from Middle French, from Old French, from issir to come out, go out, from Latin exire to go out, from ex- + ire to go; akin to Gothic iddja he went, Greek ienai to go, Sanskrit eti he goes
1 a : a matter that is in dispute between two or more parties b : a vital or unsettled matter c : the point at which an unsettled matter is ready for a decision
- is·sue·less /'i-shü-l&s/ adjective
- at issue 1 : in a state of controversy : in disagreement 2 also in issue : under discussion or in dispute

Isthmus of Nicaragua: isth·mus of Nic·a·ra·gua
Pronunciation: 'is-m&s of "ni-k&-'rä-gw&, "nE-kä-'rä-gwä
Function: noun
Etymology: Latin, from Greek isthmos
Usage: geographical name
1 : a narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas of Central American

Laborer: la·bor·er
Pronunciation: -b&r-&r
Function: noun
1 : one that labors; specifically : a person who does unskilled physical work for wages

Legislator: leg·is·la·tor
Pronunciation: 'le-j&s-"lA-"tor, -"lA-t&r also "le-j&s-'lA-"tor
Function: noun
Etymology: Latin legis lator, literally, proposer of a law, from legis (genitive of lex law) + lator proposer, from ferre (past participle latus) to carry, propose -- more at TOLERATE, BEAR
1 : one that makes laws especially for a political unit; especially : a member of a legislative body
- leg·is·la·to·ri·al /"le-j&s-l&-'tOr-E-&l, -'tor-/ adjective
- leg·is·la·tor·ship /'le-j&s-"lA-t&r-"ship/ noun

Liniment: lin·i·ment
Pronunciation: 'li-n&-m&nt
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Late Latin linimentum, from Latin linere to smear -- more at LIME
1 : a liquid or semiliquid preparation that is applied to the skin as an anodyne or a counterirritant

Livery: liv·ery
Pronunciation: 'li-v&-rE, 'liv-rE
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural -er·ies
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French livree, literally, delivery, from livrer to deliver, from Latin liberare to free -- more at LIBERATE
1 a: the feeding, stabling, and care of horses for pay b : LIVERY STABLE

Loopholed: 'lüp-"hOl
Function: noun
Etymology: 1loop
1 a : a small opening through which small arms may be fired b : a similar opening to admit light and air or to permit observation

Looted: 'lüt-ed
Function: noun
Etymology: Hindi lut; akin to Sanskrit luntati he plunders
1 a : to plunder or sack in war b : to rob especially on a large scale and usually by violence or corruption
2 : to seize and carry away by force especially in war
intransitive senses : to engage in robbing or plundering especially in war

Lots: 'läts
Function: noun
1 a : a portion of land b : a measured parcel of land having fixed boundaries and designated on a plot or survey c : a motion-picture studio and its adjoining property

Machinist: ma·chin·ist
Pronunciation: m&-'shE-nist
Function: noun
1 a : a worker who fabricates, assembles, or repairs machinery b : a craftsman skilled in the use of machine tools c : one who operates a machine

Maiden Voyage: maid·en voy·age
Pronunciation: 'mA-d&n 'voi-ij, 'vo(-)ij
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Old English mægden, m[AE]den, diminutive of mægeth; akin to Old High German magad maiden, Old Irish mug serf / Middle English, from Old French voiage, from Late Latin viaticum, from Latin, traveling money, from neuter of viaticus of a journey, from via way -- more at WAY
1 : First act or instance of traveling

Mayor: 'mA-&r, 'me(-&)r, esp before names (")mer
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English maire, from Old French, from Latin major greater -- more at MAJOR
1 : an official elected or appointed to act as chief executive or nominal head of a city, town, or borough

Mercantile: mer·can·tile
Pronunciation: 'm&r-k&n-"tEl, -"tIl
Function: adjective
Etymology: French, from Italian, from mercante merchant, from Latin mercant-, mercans, from present participle of mercari to trade -- more at MARKET
1 : of or relating to merchants or trading

Merchandise: mer·chan·dise
Pronunciation: 'm&r-ch&n-"dIz, -"dIs
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English marchaundise, from Old French marcheandise, from marcheant
1 archaic : the occupation of a merchant : TRADE
2 : the commodities or goods that are bought and sold in business : WARES

Migrant Laborer: mi·grant la·bor·er
Pronunciation: 'mI-gr&nt -b&r-&r
Function: noun
Etymology: Latin migrant-, migrans, present participle of migrare
1 : one that migrates : as a : a person who moves regularly in order to find work especially in harvesting crops
2 : one that labors; specifically : a person who does unskilled physical work for wages

Militia: mi·li·tia
Pronunciation: m&-'li-sh&
Function: noun
Etymology: Latin, military service, from milit-, miles
1 a : a part of the organized armed forces of a country liable to call only in emergency b : a body of citizens organized for military service
2 : the whole body of able-bodied male citizens declared by law as being subject to call to military service

Mythical: myth·i·cal
Pronunciation: 'mith-i-k&l
Variant(s): or myth·ic /-ik/
Function: adjective
1 : based on or described in a myth especially as contrasted with history

Namesake: name·sake
Pronunciation: -"sAk
Function: noun
Etymology: probably from name's sake
1 : one that has the same name as another; especially : one who is named after another or for whom another is named

Officials: &-'fi-sh&l also O-
Function: noun
1 : one who holds or is invested with an office : OFFICER

Ordinance: or·di·nance
Pronunciation: 'ord-n&n(t)s, 'or-d&n-&n(t)s
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French & Medieval Latin; Middle French ordenance, literally, act of arranging, from Medieval Latin ordinantia, from Latin ordinant-, ordinans, present participle of ordinare to put in order -- more at ORDAIN
1 a : the projectiles with their fuses, propelling charges, or primers fired from guns b : CARTRIDGES c : explosive military items (as grenades or bombs)
2 : material for use in attacking or defending a position

Plentiful: plen·ti·ful
Pronunciation: 'plen-ti-f&l
Function: adjective
1 : containing or yielding plenty
2 : characterized by, constituting, or existing in plenty
- plen·ti·ful·ly /-f&-lE/ adverb
- plen·ti·ful·ness noun

Plotted: plotted
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): plot·ted; plot·ting
1 a : to make a plot, map, or plan of b : to mark or note on or as if on a map or chart
2 : to lay out in plots

: plottedFunction: verbInflected Form(s): plot·ted; plot·ting1 a : to make a plot, map, or plan of b : to mark or note on or as if on a map or chart2 : to lay out in plotsPointless: point·less
Pronunciation: 'point-l&s
Function: adjective
3 : devoid of meaning : SENSELESS 
4 : devoid of effectiveness

Prevailed: pri-'vA(&)l
Function: intransitive verb
Etymology: Middle English, from Latin praevalEre, from prae- pre- + valEre to be strong -- more at WIELD
1 : to gain ascendancy through strength or superiority : TRIUMPH

2 : pri-'vA(&)lFunction: intransitive verbEtymology: Middle English, from Latin praevalEre, from prae- pre- + valEre to be strong -- more at WIELD1 : to gain ascendancy through strength or superiority : TRIUMPH

Profitable: prof·it·able
Pronunciation: 'prä-f&-t&-b&l, 'präf-t&-b&l
Function: adjective
: affording profits : yielding advantageous returns or results
- prof·it·abil·i·ty /"prä-f&-t&-'bi-l&-tE/ noun
- prof·it·able·ness /'prä-f&-t&-b&l-n&s/ noun
- prof·it·ably /-blE/ adver

Prominent: -n&nt
Function: adjective
1 : a : readily noticeable : CONSPICUOUS b : widely and popularly known : LEADING

Prosecute: pros·e·cute
Pronunciation: 'prä-si-"kyüt
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -cut·ed; -cut·ing
Etymology: Middle English, from Latin prosecutus, past participle of prosequi to pursue -- more at PURSUE
transitive senses
1 : to follow to the end : pursue until finished
2 : to engage in : PERFORM
3 a : to bring legal action against for redress or punishment of a crime or violation of law b : to institute legal proceedings with reference to
intransitive senses : to institute and carry on a legal suit or prosecution

Prosecution: pros·e·cu·tion
Pronunciation: "prä-si-'kyü-sh&n
Function: noun
1 : the act or process of prosecuting; specifically : the institution and continuance of a criminal suit involving the process of pursuing formal charges against an offender to final judgment
2 : the party by whom criminal proceedings are instituted or conducted

Prospect: pros·pect
Pronunciation: 'prä-"spekt, chiefly British pr&-'
Function: verb
intransitive senses : to explore an area especially for mineral deposits
transitive senses : to inspect (a region) for mineral deposits; broadly : EXPLORE

Provisional: pro·vi·sion·al
Pronunciation: pr&-'vizh-n&l, -'vi-zh&-n&l
Function: adjective
1 : serving for the time being : TEMPORARY
- pro·vi·sion·al·ly adverb

Purchase: pur·chase
Pronunciation: 'p&r-ch&s
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): pur·chased; pur·chas·ing
Etymology: Middle English purchacen, from Old French purchacier to seek to obtain, from por-, pur- for, forward (modification of Latin pro-) + chacier to pursue, chase -- more at PRO-
transitive senses
1 a archaic : GAIN, ACQUIRE b : to acquire (real estate) by means other than descent or inheritance c : to obtain by paying money or its equivalent : BUY d : to obtain by labor, danger, or sacrifice
2: to constitute the means for buying
intransitive senses : to purchase something
- pur·chas·able /-ch&-s&-b&l/ adjective
- pur·chas·er noun

Recorder: re·cord·er
Pronunciation: ri-'kor-d&r
Function: noun
1 : a municipal judge with criminal jurisdiction of first instance and sometimes limited civil jurisdiction
2 : one that records

Recover: re·cov·er
Pronunciation: ri-'k&-v&r
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): re·cov·ered; re·cov·er·ing /-'k&-v&-ri[ng], -'k&v-ri[ng]/
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French recoverer, from Latin recuperare, from re- + (assumed) Latin caperare, from Latin capere to take -- more at HEAVE
transitive senses
1 : to get back : REGAIN
2 a : to bring back to normal position or condition b archaic : RESCUE
3 a : to make up for b : to gain by legal process
4 archaic : REACH
5 : to find or identify again
- re·cov·er·abil·i·ty /-"k&-v&-r&-'bi-l&-tE, -"k&v-r&-/ noun
- re·cov·er·able /-'k&-v&-r&-b&l, -'k&v-r&-/ adjective
- re·cov·er·er /-'k&-v&r-&r/ noun

Recreational: rec·re·a·tion al
Pronunciation: "re-krE-'A-sh&n al
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English recreacion, from Middle French recreation, from Latin recreation-, recreatio restoration to health, from recreare to create anew, restore, refresh, from re- + creare to create
1 : refreshment of strength and spirits after work; also : a means of refreshment or diversion : HOBBY

Remains: remains
Function: noun
1 obsolete : STAY
2 : a remaining part or trace -- usually used in plural
3 : plural : a dead body

Rendezvous: ren·dez·vous
Pronunciation: 'rän-di-"vü, -dA-
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural ren·dez·vous /-"vüz/
Etymology: Middle French, from rendez vous present yourselves
1 a : a place appointed for assembling or meeting b : a place of popular resort : HAUNT
2 : a meeting at an appointed place and time

Residents: resident
Function: noun
1 : one who resides/lives in a place

Restless: rest·less
Pronunciation: 'rest-l&s
Function: adjective
1 : lacking or denying rest : UNEASY
2 : continuously moving : UNQUIET
3 : characterized by or manifesting unrest especially of mind ; also : CHANGEFUL, DISCONTENTED
- rest·less·ly adverb
- rest·less·ness noun

Rude: rude
Pronunciation: 'rüd
Function: adjective
Inflected Form(s): rud·er; rud·est
Etymology: Middle English, from Middle French, from Latin rudis; probably akin to Latin rudus rubble
1 a : being in a rough or unfinished state : CRUDE b : NATURAL, RAW c : PRIMITIVE, UNDEVELOPED d : SIMPLE, ELEMENTAL

: rude Pronunciation: 'rüdFunction: adjectiveInflected Form(s): rud·er; rud·estEtymology: Middle English, from Middle French, from Latin rudis; probably akin to Latin rudus rubble1 a : being in a rough or unfinished state : CRUDE b : NATURAL, RAW c : PRIMITIVE, UNDEVELOPED d : SIMPLE, ELEMENTAL

Sections: 'sek-sh&n
Function: noun
Etymology: Latin section-, sectio, from secare to cut
1 a : the action or an instance of cutting or separating by cutting b : a part set apart

Significant: sig·nif·i·cant
Pronunciation: -k&nt
Function: adjective
Etymology: Latin significant-, significans, present participle of significare to signify
1 : having or likely to have influence or effect : IMPORTANT ; also : of a noticeably or measurably large amount

Slateboard:
Pronunciation: \ˈslāt\ Function: noun Etymology: Middle English sclate, slate, from Anglo-French *esclat, from esclater to splinter, break off, of Germanic origin
1 : tablet (as of slate) used for writing on

Sole: sole
Function: transitive verb
Inflected Form(s): soled; sol·ing
1 : to furnish with a sole

Stable: sta·ble
Pronunciation: 'stA-b&l
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, from Old French estable, from Latin stabulum, from stare to stand -- more at STAND
1 : a building in which domestic animals are sheltered and fed; especially : such a building having stalls or compartments

Stagger: stag·ger
Pronunciation: 'sta-g&r
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): stag·gered; stag·ger·ing /-g(&-)ri[ng]/
Etymology: alteration of earlier stacker, from Middle English stakeren, from Old Norse stakra, frequentative of staka to push; perhaps akin to Old English staca stake -- more at STAKE
intransitive senses
1: to arrange in any of various zigzags, alternations, or overlappings of position or time

Strive: strive
Pronunciation: 'strIv
Function: intransitive verb
Inflected Form(s): strove /'strOv/; also strived /'strIvd/; striv·en /'stri-v&n/; or strived; striv·ing /'strI-vi[ng]/
Etymology: Middle English, from Old French estriver, of Germanic origin; akin to Middle High German streben to endeavor
1 : to devote serious effort or energy : ENDEAVOR
2 : to struggle in opposition : CONTEND

Surveyor: sur·vey·or
Pronunciation: s&r-'vA-&r
Function: noun
: one that surveys; especially : one whose occupation is surveying land

Taxonomy: tax·on·o·my
Pronunciation: tak-'sä-n&-mE
Function: noun
Etymology: French taxonomie, from tax- + -nomie -nomy
1 : the study of the general principles of scientific classification : SYSTEMATICS
2 : CLASSIFICATION; especially : orderly classification of plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
- tax·o·nom·ic /"tak-s&-'nä-mik/ adjective
- tax·o·nom·i·cal·ly /-mi-k(&-)lE/ adverb
- tax·on·o·mist /tak-'sä-n&-mist/ noun

Tedious: te·dious
Pronunciation: 'tE-dE-&s, 'tE-j&s
Function: adjective
Etymology: Middle English, from Late Latin taediosus, from Latin taedium
1 : tiresome because of length or dullness

Terminal: ter·mi·nal
Pronunciation: 't&rm-n&l, 't&r-m&-n&l
Function: adjective
Etymology: Latin terminalis, from terminus
1 a : of or relating to an end, extremity, boundary, or terminus b : growing at the end of a branch or stem

Terminus: ter·mi·nus
Pronunciation: 't&r-m&-n&s
Function: noun
Inflected Form(s): plural ter·mi·ni /-"nI, -"nE/; or -nus·es
Etymology: Latin, boundary, end -- more at TERM
1 : a final goal : a finishing point
2 : a post or stone marking a boundary
3 : either end of a transportation line or travel route; also : the station, town, or city at such a place : TERMINAL

: ter·mi·nus Pronunciation: 't&r-m&-n&sFunction: nounInflected Form(s): plural ter·mi·ni /-"nI, -"nE/; or -nus·esEtymology: Latin, boundary, end -- more at TERM1 : a final goal : a finishing point2 : a post or stone marking a boundary3 : either end of a transportation line or travel route; also : the station, town, or city at such a place : TERMINAL

Testify: tes·ti·fy
Pronunciation: 'tes-t&-"fI
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -fied; -fy·ing
Etymology: Middle English testifien, from Latin testificari, from testis witness
intransitive senses
1 a : to make a statement based on personal knowledge or belief : bear witness b : to serve as evidence or proof
2: to make a solemn declaration under oath for the purpose of establishing a fact (as in a court)
transitive senses
3 a : to bear witness to : ATTEST b : to serve as evidence of : PROVE
4: to declare under oath before a tribunal or officially constituted public body

Trestle: tres·tle
Variant(s): also tres·sel /'tre-s&l also 'tr&-/
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English trestel, from Middle French, from (assumed) Vulgar Latin transtellum, from Latin transtillum, diminutive of transtrum traverse beam, from trans across -- more at THROUGH
1 : a braced frame serving as a support
2 : a braced framework of timbers, piles, or steelwork for carrying a road or railroad over a depression

Typhoid Fever: typhoid fever
Function: noun
1 : a communicable disease marked especially by fever, diarrhea, prostration, headache, and intestinal inflammation and caused by a bacterium (Salmonella typhi)

Unidentified: Un-iden·ti·fied
Pronunciation: Un-I-'den-t&-"fI, &-ed
Function: verb
Inflected Form(s): -fied; -fy·ing
transitive senses
1 : unable to establish the identity of

Unusual: un·usu·al
Pronunciation: -'yü-zh&-w&l, -zh&l; -'yüzh-w&l
Function: adjective
1 : not usual : UNCOMMON, RARE
- un·usu·al·ly adverb
- un·usu·al·ness noun

Utopian: uto·pi·an
Pronunciation: -pE-&n
Function: adjective
Usage: often capitalized
1 : of, relating to, or having the characteristics of a utopia; especially : having impossibly ideal conditions especially of social organization
2 : proposing or advocating impractically ideal social and political schemes
3 : impossibly ideal : VISIONARY
4 : believing in, advocating, or having the characteristics of utopian socialism

Valuable: valu·able
Pronunciation: 'val-y&-b&l, -y&-w&-b&l
Function: adjective
1 a : having monetary value b : worth a good price
2 a : having desirable or esteemed characteristics or qualities b : of great use or service

Volunteer: vol·un·teer
Pronunciation: "vä-l&n-'tir
Function: noun
Etymology: obsolete French voluntaire (now volontaire), from voluntaire, adjective, voluntary, from Latin voluntarius
1 : a person who voluntarily undertakes or expresses a willingness to undertake a service: as a : one who enters into military service voluntarily

Wager: wa·ger
Pronunciation: 'wA-j&r
Function: noun
Etymology: Middle English, pledge, bet, from Anglo-French wageure, from Old North French wagier to pledge
1 a : something (as a sum of money) risked on an uncertain event : STAKE b : something on which bets are laid : GAMBLE